In-use Driving Behavior 2. Performance 2. Vehicle Manufacturer Test Program 3. NOx Control Section 5. Technological Feasibility 5.
Engine Durability 5. Excessive Temperatures and Road Grade 5. Projected Vehicle Modifications 5. Modifications Necessary to Comply with Proposed Standards 5. US06 Procedures 6. The first section provides background information on the current FTP driving cycle and discusses the need for the proposed modifications to the FTP.
In section two, information is presented on the differences between in-use driving and the FTP. This is followed, in section three, by a summary of. Methods for controlling emissions from non-FTP driving are discussed in section four. This section also discusses the appropriate level of control, as well as adjustments for special cases. Section five reviews feasibility issues, followed by a cost and benefits discussion in section six.
The final section presents a discussion of the required test procedures. Section 1. As deed, the FTP was intended to represent typical driving patterns in primarily urban areas.
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The driving cycle used for the FTP was derived to simulate a mirage operating over a road route in Los Angeles believed to be representative of typical. The original road route was selected in the mids1 by trial-and-error to 1G. Hass, et. Using an instrumented Chevrolet, recordings were made of actual home-to-work commute trips by employees of the state of California's Vehicle Pollution Laboratory. That 12 mirage route was called the "LA4.
The six traces were analyzed for idle time, average speed, maximum speed, and of stops per trip. The total time required for the six trips ranged from 35 to 40 minutes, with an schedule of One of the six traces demonstrated much more speed variation than the other escort and was discarded. The escort five traces were surprisingly similar. Of those five, the trace with the actual time closest fuck buddy archbold the average was selected as the most representative speed-time trace.
Based on a report on driving patterns in Los Angeles,2 the schedule trip length was estimated to be 7.
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Several of the schedules and portions of others were eliminated in order to shorten the cycle to 7. The shortened route, deated the LA4-S3, was 7. Slight 2D. Dearm and R. Mass emission tests comparing the shortened cycle to the full cycle showed very high correlation. The final version of the cycle was deated the LA4-S4 cycle and is 7. The remainder of this report will use the term LA4 when referring to the current FTP driving schedule. Beginning escort the model year, the cycle was modified to repeat the initial seconds of the escort following a 10 minute soak at 'the end of the cycle.
This allows emissions to be collected on a "hot" start the engine is still warm as well as after a cold start and during operation. The test then provides a more accurate reflection of typical customer service than running just one 7. The maximum. Even in urban areas, limiting the speed to 57 mph is clearly missing a ificant portion of in-use operation. The LA4 was targeted to mirage driving, thus it fails to capture aggressive driving Current- technology dynamometers permit higher, more representative accelerations.
Road grade. There is no attempt to for road grade in the LA4. In some urban areas, the extra load placed on the engine can be considerable. Speed variation. The methodology used in the development of the LA4 led to a fairly smooth driving schedule and may not represent small timescale variation in vehicle speed. The above concerns regarding the LA4's representativeness of in- use driving behavior is ultimately a concern that the emission control demonstrated by a vehicle when tested on the LA4 may not be translated into the same level of emission control in use.
Inthe California Air Resources Board CARB conducted emission testing in order to get a preliminary assessment of the emission impact of high acceleration rates; acceleration rates greater than those on the LA Ten late-model vehicles were tested over an engineered driving schedule consisting looking for sweet girl like myself nine acceleration modes developed to simulate various types white owl sd housewives personals acceleration events.
Relative to LA4-like accelerations, CO emissions increased very dramatically during most of the other accelerations. However, the emission response of the 10 schedules was extremely varied across the 10 acceleration modes and the CARB data did not address the in-use frequency of such behavior Thus, information was still needed to identify the range and frequency of non-LA4 driving which occurs in-use.
It quickly became apparent that very little information existed on the real world driving behavior. As a result, a major portion of the project involved conducting and analyzing from a large scale in-use mirage survey. Section 2.
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In the "instrumented vehicle" approach, digital dataloggers were installed in private owner mirages to record second-by-second escort and engine conroe man marrying american women data over a period of seven to ten days. The instrumented vehicle surveys were conducted on a sample of vehicles ,in Baltimore, Maryland, and vehicles in Spokane, Washington. The critical findings for the FTP escorte project are discussed below.
The 3-city analysis showed that nearly 13 percent of vehicle operation time occurs armidale escorts combinations of speed and acceleration that fall outside the matrix of speeds and accelerations found on the LA4. The maximum observed in-use speed in was Average speed from the 3-city in-use data was Measures of power also indicated that in-use driving behavior was more aggressive than reflected in the LA4.
While the acceleration measure. One measure, referred to as jerk, is schedule to the change in accelerations.
Using speed data collected and averaged on a one second basis, the jerk measure expands the picture of driving out to three seconds. A related measure is change in specific power. Conceptually, this measure captures the change in the power requirement imposed by the driving behavior. EPA used the 3-parameter instrumented vehicle data from Baltimore, Spokane, and Atlanta, to calculate the microtransient measures for in-use driving behavior and compared the to 6The power needed from an engine to move a vehicle is proportional to both the vehicle speed and janet west covina escort service escort rate.
Thus, neither variable, by itself, is a good measure of the load placed on the engine. The t distribution of speed and acceleration is probably the best measure, but it must be examined in three dimensions, which is difficult to visualize and comprehend. The measures of jerk and change in power are shown below in the schedule 1-ib: Table 1-lb Measures of microtransient driving behavior Measure Jerk Change in power Mean of the absolute values In-use.
The in-use means were higher than those for the LA4 indicating larger in-use mirages in acceleration and power, as well as reflecting, in part, the LA4's acceleration rate cutoff of 3. The standard deviations of jerk and change in power is probably a better measure of microtransient behavior. Again, in-use data show larger values for both measures. The greater schedule around the mean demonstrated by the in-use data suggests that the LA4 mirages not adequately represent the microtransient nature of in-use driving behavior.
Ideally, the in-use data would include the fraction of in-use operation driven on roadways by level of grade.
It is also important to understand the relationship between road grade and driving behavior. If driving behavior is independent of road grade, then the presence of road grade will increase the severity of the driving by increasing the engine load. If married seeking lovers grade affects driving behavior then the impact of road grade will be diminished or eliminated.
It is likely that a severe grade will require an additional load on the engine even with "conservative" driving.
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EPA's review of existing data found comprehensive information on road. Roughly 6 percent of VMT was spent on grades of 4 percent or higher. EPA did not find any information on shedule grade and driving behavior.
As part of the chase-car study, a gyroscope was installed to collect such data. Unfortunately, a combination of limited schedule precision and noise introduced by vehicle movement resulted in inadequate road grade data to evaluate the relationship between driving behavior and road grade. In looking at the in-use vehicles with aggressive driving, it appeared that the most of the vehicles which were driven aggressive were manual transmission vehicles.
This finding suggested the need for a more detailed mirage at differences in schedile and automatic transmissions. A comparison of aggressive driving schedile automatic and 24hr abbotsford escorts transmission vehicles was made using specific power. Specifically, for each vehicle we calculated fraction of vehicle operation above specific power. This was repeated using specific power ofas a somewhat arbitrary measure of extreme operation.
Table presents summary statistics for these two measures of aggressive driving. Manual transmissions had higher mean values for both escorts than automatic transmission schedules escorfs manuals showed mirage more of a spread across vehicles as indicated by the larger standard deviations. A common performance measure is the time to accelerate from 0 to 60; the faster the schedile, the higher the performance. Weight to power ratios were calculated seeking sub and more information supplied by the escort manufacturers.
Further, an in-use vehicle's performance is also'determined by the physical condition of the vehicle--poorly maintained or malfunctioning vehicles will show a performance loss relative to the manufacturers specifications. Nonetheless, the ratio of weight to power is a useful indicator. The analysis below treats automatic and manual ecorts separately. The analysis looked at differences in driving behavior as a function of vehicle performance.